THOMAS HEATHERWICK :
Thomas Heatherwick is an english designer and the founder of London-based design practice Heatherwick Studio. Since the late 1990s Heatherwick has emerged as one of Britain’s most gifted and imaginative designers. His innovative approach to design has earned him a reputation as an "ideas engine".
At the heart of the studio’s work is a profound commitment to finding innovative design solutions, with a dedication to artistic thinking and the latent potential of materials and craftsmanship. This is achieved through a working methodology of collaborative rational inquiry, undertaken in a spirit of curiosity and experimentation.
Unlike many architecture practices, Heatherwick Studio does not have a fixed style and focuses on problem solving. He has said: “It is more like solving a crime. The answer is there, and your job is to find it."
the cauldron :
the New Bus for London :
In January 2010, Heatherwick Studio joined the team commissioned by London’s mayor to develop the design of a new bus for London. Once production of the Routemaster ceased in 1968, London’s buses were ordered from catalogues of existing designs. Apart from being red, the design of these vehicles became increasingly compromised and uncoordinated.
This would be the first bus to be designed specifically for the capital in more than fifty years, but the brief was not to replicate the Routemaster, which was inaccessible to wheelchair-users and difficult for people with prams. As well as being three metres longer than a Routemaster, this bus would have two staircases and three doors. It would have a conductor to look after passengers and an open platform, which would give Londoners their freedom once more to get on and off the bus at will, but this would be enclosed outside peak hours. Having set the environmental target of using 40% less fossil fuel than existing buses, the team developed a hybrid vehicle, powered by both electricity and diesel, seeking to make it as lightweight as possible.
The geometry of the vehicle developed from a series of pragmatic decisions. It was in order to minimise the perceived size of the vehicle that its corners and edges were rounded. It was to allow the driver to see small children standing next to the bus that its front window was angled down towards the pavement. And, with its three doors on one side and two staircases on the other, it was the functional asymmetry of the bus’s internal circulation that led to its asymmetrical geometry. The windows form two ribbons of glass that wrap around the bus, corresponding to the two staircases, which transform the stairs from a dark constricted tunnel to a different kind of space.
new london bus :
Bombay Sapphire :
Angel's Wings :
Paternoster Square is part of a development in a high-profile, sensitive location, next to St Paul’s Cathedral in London. It is a new public space containing a pre-existing underground electricity substation. This substation required a cooling system with outlet and inlet vents, but the client team was unhappy with the proposed solution for a single large object as it would turn the surrounding space into a corridor.
The studio made use of the two existing holes in the concrete slab covering the substation, to reduce the overall size of the vent object by splitting the outlet part into two smaller vents – saving significant space by setting the inlet ducts into the ground using grilles flush with the pavement.
The aesthetic design is derived from experiments with folded paper, scaled up to 11m in height; the vents retain the proportions of the A4-size paper used in these experiments. The Vents are fabricated from 63 identical, 8mm thick, stainless steel isosceles triangles welded together and finished by glass bead blasting.
The Vents are a permanent installation, available for the public to visit.
angel's wings :
RICHARD SERRA :
Richard Serra is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large-scale assemblies of sheet metal. Serra was involved in the Process Art Movement.
Process art is an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment where the end product of art and craft, the objet d'art, is not the principal focus. The 'process' in process art refers to the process of the formation of art: the gathering, sorting, collating, associating, patterning, and moreover the initiation of actions and proceedings. Process Art is concerned with the actual doing and how actions can be defined as an actual work of art; seeing the art as pure human expression. Process art often entails an inherent motivation, rationale, and intentionally. Therefore, art is viewed as a creative journey or process, rather than as a deliverable or end product.
To sum up, the all idea of Serra in his work is that the material is no longer an excuse to form, but is valued for itself.
Clara Clara :
A fulcrum is the point against which a lever is placed to get a purchase, or on which it turns or is supported. The sculpture takes all its sense with the definition of its title.
It is a site specific sculpture commissioned for the west entrance to Liverpool street station in the Broadgate complex.
The sculpture is 55 ft (16.8 m) high, and constructed from five plates of Cor-ten steel which intentionally have rusted to add patina to the surfaces. Although each plate weighs many tons, the sculpture is free-standing with the plates leaning against each other at the top.
BARBARA HEPWORTH :
Dame Barbara Hepworth (1975) was an English artist and sculptor. Her work exemplifies modernism and in particular modern sculpture. She was "one of the few women artists to achieve international prominence." Hepworth was a leading figure in the colony of artists who resided in St Yves during the WWII.
St. Ives had become a refuge for many artists during the war. On 8 February 1949, Hepworth and Nicholson co-founded the Penwith Society of Art at the Castle Inn; nineteen artists were founding members.
The Penwith Society of Arts is an art group formed in St Yves, Cornwall, UK in early 1949 by abstract artists who broke away from the more conservative St Yves School.
Figure for landscape :
Two forms (divided circle) :
Two Forms (Divided Circle) is a bronze sculpture designed in 1969. Six numbered copies were cast, plus one (0/6) retained by the sculptor.
The sculpture is late work by Hepworth, created only 6 years before her death in a fire at her studio in St Yves in 1975. It includes two vertical bronze semi-circles forming a broken circle approximately 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) across, each pieced pierced by one large hole. Both elements are welded to a bronze base.
Hepworth designed the work after being diagnosed with cancer in 1966. She wanted the viewer's body to be engaged with her work, saying: "You can climb through the Divided Circle – you don't need to do it physically to experience it."
Two figures :
Winged figure :
Winged Figure is a sculpture made in 1963. One of Hepworth's best known works, it has been displayed in London since April 1963, on Holles Street near the junction with Oxford Street, mounted on the south-east side of the John Lewis department store. It is estimated that the sculpture is seen by approximately 200 million people each year.
The work stands 5.8 meters high, resembling a boat's hull, with two wide asymmetric wings like blades rising from a small plinth, curving towards each other and linked to each other by a series of radial rods like strings that almost cross at a single point in the middle of the sculpture.
Single Form :
Barbara has made the sculpture on the south shore of the lake as a personal memorial to her friend, and then United Nations Secretary General, Dag Hammarskjold, who died in an air crash in 1961. Before his untimely death, they had discussed a scheme for the new United Nations building in New York. His successor as Secretary General, U Thant, had also talked of these plans; together they had walked around the pond in front of the UN, and Hammarskjold had discussed the project enthusiastically and in detail. U Thant invited Hepworth to New York to view the site. It became clear that while the Battersea Park piece was exactly the right scale for the lakeside site it was far too small for New York and the surrounding skyline.
Our sculpture is 10 feet 6 inches high, about the largest piece of bronze casting you can do. The New York version, Single Form, is nearly three time that, and was cast in seven pieces. “When I know that I would have to dissect it in order to cast it at all”, said Hepworth, “I decided to use the divisions as an inherent part of the composition. I did not want to cover up the joints. As it is, you can see how all the pieces lock together and each part balances the other”.
“All landscape needs a figure… working in the abstract way seems to release one’s personality and sharpen the perceptions so that in observation of humanity as landscape it is the wholeness of inner initiation which moves one so profoundly. The components fall into place and one is no longer aware of the detail except as the necessary significance of wholeness and unity…. A rhythm of form which has its roots in earth but reaches outwards towards the unknown experiences of the future. The thought underlying this form is, for me, the delicate balance the spirit of man maintains between his knowledge and the laws of the universe”.
the award-winning UK Pavilion at the Shanghai World Expo 2010 :
The concept behind pavilion is an enclosure that throws outwards from all sides, a mass of long radiating cilia.
The centerpiece of the pavilion is the seed cathedral, a six storey high cube-like structure,
pierced by approximately 60 000 x 7.5m long slim transparent acrylic rods which sway gently
in response to any wind movement. during the day each of these rods act like fibre
optic filaments, drawing on daylight in order to illuminate the interior. at night, light sources
at the interior end of each rod allow the whole structure to glow from the outside.
The pavilion is situated on a landscape which resembles paper which once wrapped
the building, but now lies unfolded on the site. the surrounding space provides an open
venue for public events and along with shelter for visitors.
the Olympic Cauldron for the London 2012 Olympic Games :
The cauldron consists of 204 copper petals, each representing one of the competing nations. They were brought into the stadium by each team as part of the athletes' procession then attached to long pipes in a ring at the centre of the arena.
Seven young athletes chosen by British Olympic champions passed the flames from torches to seven of the petals then the flames spread from one petal to the next. Once all the petals were ablaze the pipes rose them upwards to combine as one.
the cauldron :
The existing buildings at the complex, which formally opens this week, were built during the Victorian era to house a mill that produced paper for English bank notes. The buildings were later abandoned and left derelict until the complex was bought by Bombay Sapphire, the gin brand owned by alcoholic drinks giant Bacardi, who commissioned Heatherwick to overhaul the site, creating a new distillery and visitors' centre.
"The ideas for this project all came from an awareness of the ambition and energy that the Georgians and Victorians had who built the site that surrounds us. Working with Bombay Sapphire there was a confidence together to insert something completely new"
Two curving glass greenhouses form the major new additions to the site. Hot air is channeled into the greenhouses through large pipes clad in strips of metal, picking up heat produced during the distillation process and carrying it out through openings in the red-brick walls of one of the existing buildings.
angel's wings :
La promenade, Grand-Palais :
Serra decided on plates 17 metres high and four metres wide; absolutely vertical, they are anchored only shallowly in the ground, and nothing supports them at the surface. This size turned out to be an excellent match of technical necessity – the plates are about the largest that can now be milled – and aesthetic scale: at just under half the height of the nave, they hold their own against the architecture but do not overwhelm the viewer (only about 15 centimetres thick, they appear almost elegant). Yet this resolution of size still left the questions of number and placement, and there could be no trial run. Serra calculated that 100 feet might be the right interval to create a rhythm that would at once articulate the architecture and motivate the viewer; more plates might interfere with the former and/or intimidate the latter, while fewer might make the ground feel a little arid. This formula makes for five plates over the 200 metres of the nave, with one placed directly under the cupola, and this is what Promenadeconsists in.
The particulars of placement remained, however, and here Serra was cued by the axis of the nave, to which all the plates are strictly perpendicular. To scatter the plates would be to lose the power of this strong line; to overlap them would be to destroy the centre in another way. So Serra decided to set the plates at a very slight angle (1.69 degrees) from the axis: some are positioned on the central line at the bottom and 20 inches away at the top, while others are 20 inches off the central line at the bottom and plumb at the top. These deviations create, with simple means, a great tension; one feels drawn through the piece as through a slalom course. Yet this energy might feel forced if the rhythm were only one of alternation, so here again Serra mixed things up: from the Champs Elysées side to the Seine side, the pattern of lean vis-à-vis the centre is in-in-away-away-in. As with Clara-Clara, then, the theme of the axis is played with variations, and the apertures never fail to surprise wherever one is along the axis. Side views also allow one to see the plates both as individuals and as a group; again as with Mondrian, there is a political dimension to this dialogue between the one and the several, difference and identity, which is also underscored by the peaceable assembly of clustered viewers as a key element of the piece.
Clara Clara :
Created in 1983 for the Tuileries Gardens this monumental sculpture was installed at a time at park Choisy, Paris, and kept in a reserve fund municipal contemporary art. Back, on the occasion of Monumenta, in the gardens of Le Nôtre's, the work finds its perspective, consistency and makes sense.
Richard Serra interviews a space alters perception. It gives the viewer the opportunity to experience the work, to apprehend both visually and physically. The interaction with the work of the public is manifested by its mobility around and within the sculpture.
Figure for Landscape :
This abstract evocation of the mother and child icon is a much cherished feature of the Queen's Building lawn.
Although the form of this sculpture in bronze is reminiscent of a mother and child, its title is quite deliberate. Dame Barbara related the sculpture to its location in the environment as well as evoking a sense of being part of the landscape.
This figure is recognisable as the work of Dame Barbara and blends naturally with the growing forms of trees and shrubs around it.
Two forms :
Two figures :
Two Figures is a bronze sculpture
Upon the rectilinear base stand two highly stylized figures. Each figure is somewhat lozenge-shaped and rises vertically. Each has a frontal, symmetrical, flat surface that contrasts with the gentle curve of the surfaces on the other sides. These flat surfaces are not quite parallel to the front edge of the base but instead slightly angle in toward each other. Both figures have narrow bases compared to the widths higher up, and they terminate on top with a flat, horizontal panel perpendicular to the front. The front of each figure has deep, circular holes, characteristic of Hepworth’s sculptures.
Generally the bronze is smooth, with texture in the form of low-lying patches (a difference in depth similar to a thick layer of paint). It is patinated a rich dark brown color. The sculpture is seated on a limestone base.
There are subtle differences between the two figures. The one on the proper right (PR) is slightly shorter than its partner on the proper left. PR’s shape bows outward just above the midpoint of the figure, more than doubling its base width before tapering in again toward the top to approximately the same width as the base. The figure is filled out on the back as though the silhouette of the front face were rotated on its vertical axis, so that any given horizontal cross section would be semicircular. There are two important circular holes cut into the front surface. The higher one, placed a little less than ¾ up the height of the figure, is diametrically larger and pierces cylindrically through the entire sculpture, creating a window to the other side. The inner surface of the hole was originally patinated a dusty light green. Below it, just below ½ the height of the figure, is a slightly smaller hole that only goes about halfway through the bronze in a cylindrical fashion. This hole is lined with a bright blue paint.